Structures – Missing Word worksheet

Structures – Worksheet

A structure provides ………………….. A structure must be able to support its own weight and whatever ……………load is put on it.

Structures can be divided into two groups; frame structure sand shell structures.

  • FRAME STRUCTURES are made up of separate strips which are fixed together to make a framework. An example of a frame structure is called a ……………………
  • SHELL STRUCTURES have a single, continuous ……………….. which supports the weight of the thing inside. An example of a shell structure is a drinks……….

FORCES

When you sit on a chair, the force or ……………………….. you put on it is called …………………. force. Inside the chair are forces called ………………. internal forces which stop the chair collapsing. If the external forces are greater than the internal force, the chair will ……………… When you are sitting still, the force you apply is also still. This is called a …………….force. When you rock backwards and forwards you apply ……………….. or moving force to the chair.

Forces are not all the same. Forces can press, pull, twist or bend. If we take a material or material and try and squash it, we can say that it is in ………………….

If we take a material and try to pull it apart from either end we are putting it into ……………….

When you twist the top of a bottle or jar to open it you are using ……………………. This is  a turning or twisting ……………. When you use  a spanner to tighten or undo a nut, you are using torsion.

When one force is balanced by another they are said  to be in …………………….. A structure in which the forces are balanced stays in one position, neither falling down or moving.

TRIANGULATION

Structures are made up of individual parts called ………………… These are under tension or compression. ………………….. forces can occur where members are joined. A member under tension is called a ……………, a member under compression is called a ………………. Ties may be made of string or rope, but struts must be …………………

Triangles are very useful when building …………………. They can make it very strong and ……………… A basic four sided frame can lean if a ……….. is put on from one side. It needs to be………..

One way of making this structure more rigid would be to put in one or two more parts or ………… going from corner to corner. This way of making structures more …………………… is called …………………… It is often used when building bridges or cranes.

Use the words listed below to fill in the blanks – some words appear twice.

CAN, COLLAPSE, COMPRESSION, CRANE, DYNAMIC, EQUILIBRIUM, EXTERNAL, FORCE, INTERNAL, LOAD, LOAD, MEMBERS, MEMBERS, MOVING, PRESSURE, RIGID, RIGID, SHEAR, SKIN, STABILISED, STABLE STRUCTURES, STRUT, STATIC, SUPPORT, TENSION, TIE, TORSION, TRIANGULATION.

ANSWERS in order

support, load, crane, skin, can, pressure, external, internal, collapse, static, dynamic, compression, tension, torsion, force, equilibrium, moving, members, shear, tie, strut, rigid, structures, stable, load, stabilised, members, rigid, triangulation.

Basic Timetabling for department heads

Timetables are always there to greet us at the start of the new term as teachers, but what happens when we get to be managers and need to do our own staffing timetables or indeed the whole schools timetable.  Ideally you should love puzzles and a little bit of maths. After this a sense of humour as it can take weeks to get a large schools timetable correct and then someone on the staff will say can you just change this for me without realising the repercussions on others as well as the time to reshuffle others around.

In Technology for instance each year group on a rotation timetable needs to go to each member of staff in turn to ensure they get their full curriculum quota.

Here is an example of one such set of groups year 7.  It is for a group of 5 classes labelled X1-5 for ease but you can easily put the class name in e.g. 7AB, 7EF, 7JF, 7DE and 7VG.

Each group must do food technology, graphics, electronics, control and resistant material projects.  There are 5 teachers needed to deliver it. here is a suggested approach to timetabling this rotation. The initials of the teachers are EF, NS, TG, AM and HC.

Group DateSept-Nov DateNov -Jan DateJan – Mar DateMar – May DateMay – Jul
X1 HCFood TGResistant Materials AMGraphics NSElectronics EFControl
X2 EFControl HCFood TGResistant Materials AMGraphics NSElectronics
X3 NSElectronics EFControl HCFood TGResistant Materials AMGraphics
X4 AMGraphics NSElectronics EFControl HCFood TGResistant Materials
X5 TGResistant Materials AMGraphics NSElectronics EFControl HCFood

This is quite simple as each is moving along but can be readjusted if the teacher stays with the class except for food lessons as a change of classroom is needed. See the timetable below. As you can see there are two different resistant materials projects for this particular rotation. But anything can be inserted e.g. History/English or other year groups and their projects including exam classes.

Group DateSept-Nov DateNov -Jan DateJan – Mar DateMar – May DateMay – Jul
X1 HCSafety

Food

TGSafety

Electronics

TGResistant Materials 1 TGGraphics TGResistant Materials 2
X2 EFSafety

Resistant Materials 1

HCSafety

Food

EFGraphics EFResistant Materials 2 EFElectronics
X3 NSSafety

Electronics

NSGraphics HCSafety

Food

NCResistant Materials 1 NCResistant Materials 2
X4 AMGraphics AMElectronics AMResistant Materials 1 HCSafety

Food

AMResistant Materials 2
X5 TGSafety Resistant Materials 1 TGElectronics TGResistant Materials 2 TGGraphics HCSafety

Food

Speech Translation Technology moves forward

Going back a few years John talked about being able to talk to people from all different languages like in Star Trek. At the time it seemed so far fetched that most thought it was not a possibility, and often their lack of foresight hindered his vision. He wanted to be able to speak in English yet the people to understand in their home language. As teachers this would be so invaluable when we have new arrivals to our classrooms.  We haven’t time to wait for an interpreter or translator to arrive, most schools do not have the finances to have a qualified teacher who is also a native speaker so cheaper and simple solutions are sought daily as people move around globally more now than ever.

It is really good to see that Microsoft are nearer to this goal than ever before.  The good stuff it at around 7.05 where he speaks in English and out comes Chinese

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Nu-nlQqFCKg

As Dr. Rashid’s post explains in detail, this demo is less of a breakthrough than an evolutionary step, representing a new version of a long-established combination of three gradually-improving technologies: Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), Machine Translation (MT), and speech synthesis (no appropriate standard acronym, though TTS for “text to speech” is close).

In 1986, when the money from the privatization of NTT was used to found the Advanced Telecommunication Research (ATR) Institute in Japan, the centerpiece of ATR’s prospectus was the Interpreting Telephony Laboratory. As explained in Tsuyoshi Morimoto, “Automatic Interpreting Telephone Research at ATR“, Proceedings of a Workshop on Machine Translation, 1990:

An automatic telephone interpretation system will transform a spoken dialogue from the speaker’s language  to the listener’s  automatically  and simultaneously. It will undoubtedly be used to overcome language barriers and facilitate communication among the people of the world.

ATR Interpreting Telephony Research project was started in 1986. The objective is to promote basic research for developing an automatic telephone interpreting system. The project period is seven-years.

As of 1986, all of the constituent technologies had been in development for 25 or 30 years. But none of them were really ready for general use in an unrestricted conversational setting, and so the premise of the ATR Interpreting Telephony Laboratory was basically a public-relations device for framing on-going speech technology research, not a plausible R&D project. And so it’s not surprising that the ATR Interpreting Telephony Laboratory completed its seven-year term without producing practical technology — though quite a bit of valuable and interesting speech technology research was accomplished, including important contributions to the type of speech synthesis algorithm used in the Microsoft demo.

In the 26 years since 1986, there have been two crucial changes: Moore’s Law has made computers bigger and faster but smaller and cheaper; and speech recognition, machine translation, and speech synthesis have all gotten gradually better.  In both the domain of devices and the domain of algorithms, the developments have been evolutionary rather than revolutionary — the reaction of a well-informed researcher from the late 1980s, transplanted to 2012, would be satisfaction and admiration at the clever ways that familiar devices and algorithms have been improved, not baffled amazement at completely unexpected inventions.

All of the constituent technologies — ASR, MT, speech synthesis — have improved to the point where we all encounter them in everyday life, and some people use them all the time. I’m not sure whether Interpreting Telephony’s time has finally come, but it’s clearly close.

In any case, the folks at Microsoft Research are at or near the leading edge in pushing forward all of the constituent technologies for speech-to-speech translation, and Rashid’s speech-to-speech demo is an excellent way to publicise that fact.