If you are bilingual do you change your language depending on what you want to convey?

Code-shifting is making the news recently which means that the bilingual speaker changes between languages. I wondered if they use it to their advantage i.e. to deliver either a hurtful or loving message in the best way. This led me to wondering if parents used this when nurturing their children. Some languages are known to be romantic and others harsh, so if the bilingual languages are one of each do they deliver the nice compliments and praise etc via the romance language and vice versa? What about teachers do they unknowingly do the same? I knew as a child when I was in the wrong when I was called by my full name in a tone that made it obvious, is the same true of the language used with bilingual children?

I am still wondering but have a better understanding now and it appears my instinctive answer of yes was right according to this news article. To aid your reading I have emboldened the most important points.

Bilingual children learn to switch languages to express emotion

It’s known as ‘code-switching’, and multilingual families do it all the time, apparently. It’s the habit of switching back and forth between languages to suit the emotional situation and what they want to express at any given time.

Now, a new study published in Perspectives on Psychological Science carried out at the University of California is looking at how a multilingual parents’ choice of different languages to express certain emotions affect the way their children understand and regulate their own emotions.

According to ScienceDaily, language plays a key role in emotion because it allows the speaker to articulate, conceal or discuss feelings. Now it seems that bilingual parents choose a specific language to convey emotion because they feel that language is culturally better equipped to express the particular emotion.

For example, a native Finnish speaker may use English to tell her children she loves them because Finnish is not typically an emotional language.

This means that children learn to associate certain emotional states with a particular language and, in turn,  the choice of language then influences how they experience emotion.

For example, children may switch to a less emotional language in order to decrease negative arousal.

The researchers hope the implications of emotion-related language switching can be used to explore marital interactions, therapy and work with immigrant families.


Advantages of a bilingual education – Switzerland

Below is a really good article that reads easily and discusses not only the educational benefits of bilingualism but the social advantages which I have witnessed daily and I can be seen in this extract below but the whole article I would recommend to anyone looking for a one stop show as a starting point to be able to explain the benefits of bilingualism.

Social advantages Bilingual children also gain huge social advantages over their monolingual peers. These advantages are variously cultural, communication and personal. Balanced bilinguals are more comfortable in a multi-cultural environment and are more tolerant and open-minded towards people, cultures and languages. The child grows into an adult who more easily tolerates change, can instinctively attune speaking to the needs of the listener (language and vocabulary) and enjoys the confidence of being able to move freely in multiple environments.

The rest of the article can be found here bear in mind that they are selling themselves but nonetheless it makes sense:


Advantages of a bilingual education

Parents often worry that bringing up their children bilingual will lead them to fall behind in their first language. But Pam Bremer, founder of Obersee Bilingual School, explains that bilingualism not only makes children better linguists – it sharpens their brains in other ways too.

Choosing a school for your children is hard wherever you are. When you are an expat, the choice is even harder. It’s one of the most important decisions you will ever make for your children, yet it can be hard to evaluate the different options available.
Expat parents looking for schools in Switzerland are often seeking a balance between normal Swiss schools and international schools. They want to give their children the chance to integrate into the community, without limiting their future educational choices. They have heard about the advantages that a bilingual education gives children, but wonder whether there might be drawbacks too.

Bilingual education: brain insurance In fact, there is ample research to show that bilingualism gives children social, linguistic and cognitive advantages over their peers. Bilingual children out-perform their monolingual peers in study after study. Research has also shown that the advantages last well into old age – elderly bilinguals perform as well as younger monolinguals. In other words, bilingualism is a kind of brain insurance, keeping your mind sharp well into old age, as presented in an article that recently appeared in the New York Times.
Balanced bilinguals better comprehend the complexities of language and are more adept at correcting errors in language meaning and grammar. They think more creatively than their monolingual peers and understand the subtle meanings of words. They also demonstrate a more highly developed ability to vary word usage based on the needs of the listener.
Parents sometimes worry that bringing up their children as bilingual will mean that they never really master either language – but these concerns are unfounded. In fact, research shows that children can learn to read in two languages at the same time, to the benefit of performance in both languages. Bilingually educated children are shown to read at a higher level than children educated in only language. Crucial to achieving this is ensuring that the two languages of instruction share the same system – alphabetic or pictorial.
But bilingualism does more than refine children’s linguistic abilities – it also improves their cognitive abilities. In other words, it makes them brainier. The brains of balanced bilingual children have been challenged by the acquisition of two languages to develop simultaneous connections between multiple representations of items, resulting in superior cognitive skills to those of monolinguals. In addition to a natural ability to understand the concept of numbers earlier in age, extensive studies have shown that they are more highly skilled in visual problem solving and analytical tests. 

Social advantages Bilingual children also gain huge social advantages over their monolingual peers. These advantages are variously cultural, communication and personal. Balanced bilinguals are more comfortable in a multi-cultural environment and are more tolerant and open-minded towards people, cultures and languages. The child grows into an adult who more easily tolerates change, can instinctively attune speaking to the needs of the listener (language and vocabulary) and enjoys the confidence of being able to move freely in multiple environments. 

What is bilingualism? True bilingualism can’t be taught; it must be experienced. Successful true bilingualism requires that both languages themselves be the medium of instruction, not just the subject of instruction. Balanced bilinguals are those who have reached a fluent state of performance in both languages. Only at this point do the advantages truly being to be measured. An education that is 90% monolingual with a few hours a week of instruction in another language will not produce the same results.
Things to think about: An early start – There is no “critical period” for language acquisition, as had been long believed, but there is an advantageous period for learning a new language. It is easier and quicker for a three year old to reach an age appropriate command of a new language than it is for a 13 year old. Research and experience have shown that children can enter a bilingual program any time before the age of 9 or 10 and still gain the same benefits as those who started earlier.

Age-appropriate language acquisition – You must allow two years to acquire age appropriate language skills when starting at a young age. A teenager will require 3-5 years to acquire age-appropriate language skills. Basic social competence comes quickly, but reaching native skill levels in comprehension, command of vocabulary and expression, takes an increasing amount of time the later a child enters bilingual education.

Language mixing – Very young bilingual children often mix their languages. This is perfectly normal and does not indicate language confusion. Nor does it indicate that the “primary” language is at a disadvantage. In fact, adult bilinguals also mix languages frequently – using the words that best fit the situation at hand as well as the communication needs of the listener. The child who mixes languages early during the process of becoming bilingual is using words that come easiest to his or her mind, but without regard for the limitations of the listener. Assuming that parents and teachers separate the languages, the child will learn to separate the languages and modify speech according to the communication needs of each person and situation.

Curriculum – This varies between schools, but most offer a combined local and international curriculum. Parents should look for a school which will prepare their child to enter Swiss, bilingual or international secondary schools.

Current language – ‘But my child is not already bilingual’: this is a concern expressed by many parents. In fact, most bilingual schools will take monolingual children up until primary grade 3, arranging extra support so that the children can catch up in the new language.

Too much for the child? – A bilingual education provides an interesting and valuable challenge for any child who shows normal cognitive and language development. A bilingual program is often the perfect choice for the gifted child, who might become bored in a monolingual program.

How does bilingual education work? The best chance for success The best method of bilingual education “immerses” children without “submersing” them. Typical rules specify the use of many contextual clues (pictures, body language), separation of languages, and excellent coordination and planning among teachers that includes careful repetition of key vocabulary in both languages. For new children starting such a program at a later stage in their school careers, intensive tutoring is required in order to give the child a jump-start in the new language, and rigorous testing in the new language must be delayed for some time to allow the child a chance to catch up with the others (which he or she will certainly do). 

Individualized learning Many private bilingual schools give children the chance to learn at an earlier age, and at a pace that suits their individual interests, ensuring that the love of learning thrives throughout their school career. 

Gradual language independence In pre-kindergarten the bilingual experience usually includes near simultaneous translation of information and instruction, along with many songs, pictures, stories and games in both languages. Children may speak either language, but are encouraged to try new words and phrases. Songs, stories, games, dance, music and theater play an important role in the pre-kindergarten experience.
In kindergarten and primary grades, the separation between the languages increases. A common practice is to conduct the first half of the week in German and the second half in English. The children are carefully introduced to new vocabulary in both languages in such a way that they can absorb information easily. Songs, stories games, dance, music and theatre play an important role in kindergarten.
At upper school levels, the language of instruction varies by subject matter and can change from year to year. For example mathematics might be taught in English one year and in German the following year.

Transfer at anytime Studies and experience show that children leaving a bilingual school are able to transfer to other schools with no more difficulty than would normally be encountered when changing schools, countries, cantons or school systems.

Benefits of being Bilingual – USA

An indepth scientific study into bilingualism which ends with the following conclusion. There is one very important advantage of learning other languages that I think beats any gains in cognitive control or delays in the onset of dementia. When you learn other languages you can then actually speak those languages, read those literatures, talk to new people in their native language, eaves-drop on their conversations on the bus, order off the menu, pick up that gorgeous stranger in the piazza.

In a recent paper published in Psychological Science, a team of psychologists led by Boaz Keysar at the University of Chicago found that forcing people to rely on a second language systematically reduced human biases, allowing the subjects to escape from the usual blind spots of cognition. In a sense, they were better able to think without style.

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