Structures – Missing Word worksheet

Structures – Worksheet

A structure provides ………………….. A structure must be able to support its own weight and whatever ……………load is put on it.

Structures can be divided into two groups; frame structure sand shell structures.

  • FRAME STRUCTURES are made up of separate strips which are fixed together to make a framework. An example of a frame structure is called a ……………………
  • SHELL STRUCTURES have a single, continuous ……………….. which supports the weight of the thing inside. An example of a shell structure is a drinks……….

FORCES

When you sit on a chair, the force or ……………………….. you put on it is called …………………. force. Inside the chair are forces called ………………. internal forces which stop the chair collapsing. If the external forces are greater than the internal force, the chair will ……………… When you are sitting still, the force you apply is also still. This is called a …………….force. When you rock backwards and forwards you apply ……………….. or moving force to the chair.

Forces are not all the same. Forces can press, pull, twist or bend. If we take a material or material and try and squash it, we can say that it is in ………………….

If we take a material and try to pull it apart from either end we are putting it into ……………….

When you twist the top of a bottle or jar to open it you are using ……………………. This is  a turning or twisting ……………. When you use  a spanner to tighten or undo a nut, you are using torsion.

When one force is balanced by another they are said  to be in …………………….. A structure in which the forces are balanced stays in one position, neither falling down or moving.

TRIANGULATION

Structures are made up of individual parts called ………………… These are under tension or compression. ………………….. forces can occur where members are joined. A member under tension is called a ……………, a member under compression is called a ………………. Ties may be made of string or rope, but struts must be …………………

Triangles are very useful when building …………………. They can make it very strong and ……………… A basic four sided frame can lean if a ……….. is put on from one side. It needs to be………..

One way of making this structure more rigid would be to put in one or two more parts or ………… going from corner to corner. This way of making structures more …………………… is called …………………… It is often used when building bridges or cranes.

Use the words listed below to fill in the blanks – some words appear twice.

CAN, COLLAPSE, COMPRESSION, CRANE, DYNAMIC, EQUILIBRIUM, EXTERNAL, FORCE, INTERNAL, LOAD, LOAD, MEMBERS, MEMBERS, MOVING, PRESSURE, RIGID, RIGID, SHEAR, SKIN, STABILISED, STABLE STRUCTURES, STRUT, STATIC, SUPPORT, TENSION, TIE, TORSION, TRIANGULATION.

ANSWERS in order

support, load, crane, skin, can, pressure, external, internal, collapse, static, dynamic, compression, tension, torsion, force, equilibrium, moving, members, shear, tie, strut, rigid, structures, stable, load, stabilised, members, rigid, triangulation.

I’m not bilingual; I’m not fluent in all my languages – Who is bilingual?

This is an interesting piece of research showing how many people do not even know they are bilingual and the authors definition of a bilingual. What do you think of the definition?

Life as a Bilingual

The reality of living with two (or more) languages by Francois Grosjean, Ph.D.

Who is Bilingual?How one describes bilinguals has changed over time.

Published on October 21, 2010 by Francois Grosjean, Ph.D. in Life as a Bilingual

“No, I’m not bilingual; I’m not fluent in all my languages”; “I don’t consider myself bilingual since I don’t know how to write my other language”; “I didn’t grow up with two languages, so I’m not bilingual”; “I have an accent in Spanish so I can’t be considered bilingual” …..

I have heard such remarks repeatedly and I have always been dismayed that so many bilinguals depreciate their language skills.

The main reason is that the criterion of how fluent bilinguals are in their languages has long been dominant in how we characterize them. Even some linguists have put it forward as the defining characteristic. Hence, the American linguist, Leonard Bloomfield, stated that bilingualism is the native-like control of two languages.

The “real” bilingual has long been seen as the one who is equally, and fully, fluent in two languages. He or she is the “ideal”, the “true”, the “balanced”, the “perfect” bilingual. All the others – in fact, the vast majority of bilinguals – are “not really” bilingual or are “special types” of bilinguals.

This two-monolinguals-in-one-person view has been assumed and amplified by many  bilinguals themselves who either criticize their own language competence, or strive to reach monolingual norms, or even hide their knowledge of their weaker language(s).

If one were to count as bilingual only those people who pass as complete monolinguals in each of their languages (they are a rarity), one would be left with no label for the vast majority of people who use two or more languages regularly but who do not have native-like fluency in each. The reason they don’t is quite simply that bilinguals do not need to be equally competent in all of their languages. They usually acquire and use their languages for different purposes, in different domains of life, with different people.

One of the fathers of bilingualism research, Uriel Weinreich, a linguist in the second part of the 20th century, recognized this and proposed, along with Canadian linguist William Mackey, a more realistic definition of bilingualism – the alternate use of two or more languages.

My own definition is very similar: bilinguals are those who use two or more languages (or dialects) in their everyday lives.

This other way of looking at bilinguals allows one to include people ranging from the professional interpreter who is fluent in two languages all the way to the established immigrant who speaks the host country’s language but who may not be able to read or write it. In between we find the bilingual child who interacts with her parents in one language and with her friends in another, the scientist who reads and writes articles in a second language (but who rarely speaks it), the member of a linguistic minority who uses the minority language at home only and the majority language in all other domains of life, the Deaf person who uses sign language with her friends but uses the written form of the spoken language with a hearing person, and so on. Despite the great diversity that exists between these people, they all lead their lives with more than one language.

The more recent and more realistic view of bilingualism has allowed many people who live  with two or more languages to accept who they are – bilingual, quite simply. (See here for some feedback on  what it is like to be bilingual).

 

Reference: “Describing bilinguals”. Chapter 2 of Grosjean, François (2010). Bilingual: Life and Reality. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

 

“Life as a bilingual” posts by content area: http://www.francoisgrosjean.ch/blog_en.html

François Grosjean’s website: www.francoisgrosjean.ch

http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/life-bilingual/201110/what-is-it-be-bilingual

National Curriculum Review – UK

Have you seen the Letter from Micael Gove  re the Curriculum review? He is saying that emphasis will be on English, Maths and Science with Maths expectations of pupils to be higher and knowing number bonds to 20 by year 2 and times tables to 12 by year 4. Added to this will be  more challenging content.

After that to broaden the curriculum  the following subjects will be compulsory: Art and Design, Design and Technology, Geography, History, ICT, Music and PE across all primary years. At KS2 all pupils to learn a foreign language.

Brilliant news about languages and Design Technology two subjects that really set our children up for the world of work. What do you think of this news?

See more at http://media.education.gov.uk/assets/files/pdf/l/secretary%20of%20state%20letter%20to%20tim%20oates%20regarding%20the%20national%20curriculum%20review%2011%20june%202012.pdf

Eurovision Song Contest 2012 – International

Two cultures have crossed inside me. I can write music which can be equally understood by Africans and Ukrainians”

 Gaitana Ukrainian 2012

A few years ago we met our friend  Юра (Yannis, Ukranian) at the Global Educational Technology Summit in Brussels.  Thanks to our new communication tools we were able to converse in Russian. To date we still communicate but it is getting easier and tonight we have been able to communiate via facebook.  Юра speaks only Russian and Ukranian and I dont speak either of these langauges, but thanks to improved technology we are able to keep in contact.  So I will also be cheering on the Ukraine as well as the UK and yes the Irish entry…but be secretly hoping the Russians grannies get somewhere in the top 3.

Good luck Gaitana, Engelbert and Jedward. Those of us in the UK use the red button and become instant bilinguals.