field, farmland Character #527: 田

This character/symbol actually looks a little like what it represents – field or farmland

來學正體字 | Learn Traditional Chinese Characters

527The character 田(ㄊㄧㄢˊ) means field or farmland. Here is the stroke order animation and pronunciation. Here are the individual strokes for writing the character. Here is the definition in Taiwanese Mandarin. Here is the evolution of 田.

田(ㄊㄧㄢˊ)園(ㄩㄢˊ) – countryside
田(ㄊㄧㄢˊ)地(ㄉㄧˋ) – farmland, field
田(ㄊㄧㄢˊ)徑(ㄐㄧㄥˋ) – the sport track and field, literally field and track

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Lithuanian Alphabet

I just came across this Lithuanian ABC which I was saving in my files…not much use there… not sure where it came from but it may be useful as many Lithuanians are now arriving in European and American countries.

The alphabet has 32 letters made up of 12 vowels and 20 consonants – no wonder the children get confused. I just manage the five vowels in English!

The AlphabetAa Ąą Bb Cc Čč Dd Ee Ęę Ėė Ff Gg Hh Ii Įį Yy Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Rr Ss Šš Tt Uu Ųų Ūū Vv Zz Žž

Balsės (Vowels) 12 vowels
Aa Ąą Ee Ęę Ėė Ii Įį Yy Oo Uu Ųų Ūū

Priebalsės (Consonants) 20 consonants
Bb Cc Čč Dd Ff Gg Hh Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Pp Rr Ss Šš Tt Vv Zz Žž

Aa – agurkas
Ąą – ąsotis
Bb – baltas
Cc- cukrus
Čč – čiuožikla
Dd – dangus
Ee – erelis
Ęę – ęsame
Ėė – ėriukas, eglė
Ff – fėja, futbolas
Gg – gintaras
Hh – herbas
Ii – Inkaras
Įį – įdomus
Yy – yla
Jj – juokas
Kk – katinas
Ll – liūtas
Mm – mama
Nn – namas
Oo – oras
Pp – pagalba
Rr – ranka
Ss – saulė
Šš – širdis
Tt – teta
Uu – ugnis
Ųų – metų
Ūū – ūsai
Vv – vaikas
Zz – zebra
Žž – žolė

Character #448: 客

Now Easter has gone the guests and visitors will be also so if you need to write about them in Chinese here are the characters.

來學正體字 | Learn Traditional Chinese Characters

448The character 客(ㄎㄜˋ) means guest or visitor. Here is the stroke order animation and pronunciation. Here are the individual strokes for writing the character. Here is the definition in Taiwanese Mandarin. Here is the evolution of 客.

客(ㄎㄜˋ)人(ㄖㄣˊ) – a visitor, a guest
客(ㄎㄜˋ)廳(ㄊㄧㄥ) – a living room
客(ㄎㄜˋ)戶(ㄏㄨˋ) – a client, a customer

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Consultation – draft National Curriculum programmes of study

Yesterday the government in the UK put out a draft National Curriculum consultation.  One of the programmes of study included is Foreign Languages at KS2 and 3.

Here is a brief summary of what is says please do join the consultation and let them know as teachers what you think.

Consultation – draft National Curriculum programmes of study:
Draft 2014 National Curriculum by subject

Learning a foreign language is a liberation from insularity and provides and opening into other cultures. A high quality language education should foster pupils’ curiosity and deepen their understanding of the world.

Language teaching should provide the foundation for learning further languages equipping pupils to study and work in other countries.

Teaching should focus on enabling pupils to make substantial progress in one of the following languages French, German, Italian, Mandarin, Spanish, Latin or Ancient Greek.  (No mention of sign language)

Teaching should provide a balance of written and spoken and lay the foundations for further foreign language teaching. It should enable pupils to understand and communicate ideas, facts and feelings in speech and writing, focused on familiar and routine matters, using their knowledge of phonology, grammatical structures and vocabulary.

The focus of study in Modern languages (ML) will be on practical communication whilst the focus in Latin or ancient Greek will be to provide a linguistic foundation for learning modern languages and for reading comprehension.

I think I have blogged before that I learnt French at LLantarnam school but what I probably haven’t said before was that I studied French from yr 7 to 11, German yr 8-9 and Latin yr 9-11. All from a ‘bog standard Comprehensive’. This built on my bilingual assemblies, signage and occasional lesson in primary school in Welsh.

I don’t think without my expectation for another language to always be present that I would have taken up the languages so easily in my secondary years.  Without the teacher enthusiasm of taking myself and a few friends who sung at a French singing competition where we competed against A level students I would have been disinterested.

What is also abundantly clear to me now is that the Latin that I learnt has probably been the thing that I fall back on and use the most. It is this linguistic background that I can work out words in other languages and have confidence to try.  NB I find that in my work with so many languages on a  daily basis it is actually Italian that I wish now I had learnt as every time I look at it I feel comfortable and it seems natural. Yet as a teenager I would never have even thought of learning it.

So for me these changes are welcome as long as we always remember there are children at the end of any policy/strategy that we deliver to teachers and pupils. A teacher interested in a language is far more motivating and inspiring than one who wishes they could teach Spanish yet are teaching French because of the outdated belief that well if you know one language you must be able to do this as they are only children. I think the tide is turning on this one and its nice to also see a recognition that currently Chinese is the largest language in the world so that to equip our youngsters for the world of work it gives them a real chance to be a global citizen.

138,000 speak no English – census UK

Following on from the last blog it seems that the question of movement and more children arriving in classrooms with another language and little or no English is going to be an upward trend.  Todays census information has ben revealed and suggests:

The number of Polish-born people living in England and Wales has risen by almost 900% since the last census and they now make up 1% of the population – more than Irish-born residents.

Pete Stokes, census statistical design manager for the Office of National Statistics. says most of the Polish migrants tend to be younger, and more prepared to move for work.

“Polish migrants are driven by economics and they are going everywhere. People from Poland are in every local authority in the country, they are not clustering,” he said.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-20713380

Furthermore the statistics show that:

The number of people living in England and Wales who could not speak any English was 138,000, latest figures from the 2011 census show.

After English, the second most reported main language was Polish, with 546,000 speakers, followed by Punjabi and Urdu.

Some 4 million – or 8% – reported speaking a different main language other than English or Welsh.

Of those with a main language other than English,

1.7 million could speak  English very well,

1.6 million could speak English well, and

726,000 could speak English, however not well. The remaining 138,000 could not speak English at all.

On the plus side there are lots of people and probably teachers arriving with Polish as their first language so maybe we should look at a curriculum which promotes Polish as an MFL and not French? On the negative side schools need to look at how they communicate with parents, children and community to engage them in schooling otherwise our stats as a world leader in education will keep going down and then how they ensure the curriculum is taught and academic language achieved in order that they can partake of formal examinations and receive a grade/number relevant to their true potential.  A hard one but something we must look at, at National and local level to make sure we are not failing our children.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-21259401

Finally when I first started teaching I remember people would say there were geographic areas which attracted new arrivals from overseas again this is borne out by the census as is my recent blogs that more and more schools are now witnessing challenging learning requirements to make sure all the pupils reach their potential.

The greatest numerical change has however been in London. In 2001, almost two million people in the capital were born abroad. Today it is almost three million. If anyone doubted that London was now a world city, rather than just the capital of the UK, the figures say different.

Only 44% of people in London now describe themselves as white British. In the east London borough of Newham, fewer than a fifth of the population described themselves so.

Four out of every 10 people in London in 2011 were foreign-born – up from three in 10 in 2001.

Overall, four London boroughs – Newham, Brent, Westminster and Kensington and Chelsea are now home to a majority who were born outside of the UK. Three other parts of the capital are not far off.

LEAST BORN ABROAD

  • Blaenau Gwent 1,500 (2.2%)
  • Redcar and Cleveland 3,000 (2.2%)
  • Staffordshire Moorlands 2,200 (2.2%)
  • Knowsley 3,400 2.3%
  • Caerphilly 3,400 2.3%

MOST BORN ABROAD

  • Brent 171,000 (55%)
  • Newham 165,000 (54%)
  • Westminster 117,000 (53%)
  • Kensington and Chelsea 82,000 (52%)

The history of migration was once the story of cities: We had very distinct communities in specific places – an African-Caribbean community in London or Birmingham, for instance, and Indian or East African Asian people in Leicester.

Large historic communities remain – but there is also greater geographic spread among newcomers. For instance, some 90% of the Poles in the UK are spread across England and Wales in community after community.

So overall, increasing change, rapid change and increasing diversity.

Today, almost 10,000 people born abroad call Boston home – 3,000 of them from Poland, more than any other local authority outside of the South East.

We will need to create teaching resources using all the ICT and non-ICT resources we have available to make sure that these children grow up as world or global citizens, available for work in more than one country, yet achieving at the best level they can regardless of language/s.  It is our duty to make sure through our unwillingness to change or change our practice that we hold these new world citizens back

I have a constant change of new arrivals with limited or no English.

Last week I was asked this proverbial question.  It comes up time and again and is increasing as children and society becomes more mobile schools who have had few or non EAL learners are now experiencing a different type of school day.

I left the question for open discussion during the training so that everyone could support the question. 

What came out was a lot of common sense and also positive affirmation that they are not alone. Many schools now find this a termly discussion and those with children from the travelling children experience it more.

Advice ranged from remembering that:

  1. We are teachers and every child that comes into our classroom has the right to an education (not always easy, but we must do our best to achieve this even with limited resources)
  2. You need to assess what they know and move from there otherwise they could present behavioural challenges
  3. When meeting the parent/ ask where they last went to school – if in the same country you maybe able to get some previous records even if limited it will support you a little more in finding resources that match the child’s ability to move them forward.
  4. When talking to parents create an atmosphere that says I am caring and am not prying re. e.g. previous records but I want to help your child. Some do respond.
  5. Invite the parents in, some teachers report creating ICT workshops for parents to meet together and allowed them to email relatives in their previous country or county. One teacher loved sewing so encouraged a sewing and natter group it really improved the parents perception of the school, the teacher has proper time to do some sewing that she could use with the children, the parents English improved and little molehills of problems were discussed and so mountains were reported less and less as the group gelled. It was agreed that if you choose to set up a club starting with something you are interested in then it will work.
  6. Where groups are running well and the people are secure you may pick up titbits that actually when shared help in the school or in your classroom.

If you have any further ideas please feel free to share them with us.

 

 

Lucky Italian children have yet to open their christmas gifts.

In the UK many people are now returning to week and Epiphany passes without too much excitement however in Italy it seems that the children will be awaiting eagerly now for their presents on 6th January.  I hope they enjoy them.

Christmas is one of the biggest holidays celebrated the world over. Know how the Holy  Season is traditionally observed in Italy : In Italy, the Christmas season goes for three weeks, starting 8 days  before Christmas known as the Novena and lasts till after the Feast of Epiphany.

Italian Christmas traditions are based  heavily on the religion of Christianity. The opening of the Holy Season is  announced by the sound of cannon firing from the Castle of Saint Angelo in Rome.  Eight days before Christmas, a special service of prayers and church worship  begin which ends on Christmas Day. This special service is known as the Novena,  a Roman Catholic worship service consisting of prayers on nine consecutive  days.

A week before Christmas, poor children  dress up as shepherds complete with sandals, leggings tied with crossing thongs  and shepherds’ hats. Then they go from house to house reciting Christmas poems,  singing Christmas songs and playing them on flutes (shepherds’ pipes) as well.  In return for such acts, they are given get  money to buy presents and treats for the occassion. In some parts of the country(such as in cities like Rome),  real shepherds carry out the performance.

The Nativity scene is one of the most  beloved and enduring symbols of the Christmas season. Creating the Nativity  scene during Christmas actually originated in Italy and is now a popular custom  not only in Italy but also in many other parts of the world. Legend has it that,  St. Francis of Assisi once asked Giovanni Vellita, a villager of Greccio, to  create a manger scene. Giovanni made a very  beautiful Nativity scene and before  this St. Francis performed a mass. Thereafter, the creation of the figures or  pastori became a very popular genre of folk art.

On the 8th of December, the day of the Immacolata, is observed a tradition to  set up the “Presepio” (Crib) and the Christmas  tree. The Presepio (manger or crib) represents, by means of small  statues(usually hand-carved and finely detailed in features and dress), scenes  regarding Jesus’ birth with the Holy Family and the baby Jesus in the stable.  These scenes are often set out in triangular shapes. The Presepio is the center  of Christmas celebrations for families. By twilight, candles are lighted around  the family crib known as the Presepio, prayers are said, and children recite  poems. Guests kneel before the crib and musicians sing before it. The tree is a  fir, real or fake, decorated with colored  balls and multicolored lights. Both the “Presepio” and the tree are put away in  the evening of next year on January 6th.

A strict fast is observed a day before Christmas and ends 24 hours later with  an elaborate celebratory Christmas feast. While the Christmas  Eve dinner excludes meat items and is based mainly on fish, it is  permissible to eat meat on Christmas Day. Though the menu varies from region to  region, the first course of a Christmas feast is either a Lasagna, Cannelloni or  a timbale of pasta. Mixed roast or roast beef form the main item for the second  course. These are served with various types of cheeses, fruits(dried and  otherwise) and lots of sweets, all soaked in a good quality red or white wine.  Grappa, Whiskey and other hard liquors are also served during the feast. The  Torrone, the most typical of the Christmas sweets, its available with honey or  chocolate almonds or pistachios. The Christmas  cake eaten is of a light Milanese variety known as “Panettone” and  contains raisins and candied fruits. Another famous cake is “Pandoro” a soft  golden colored variety which originated in Verona. Chocolate also features in  the menu. At noon on Christmas Day the pope gives his blessing to crowds  gathered in the huge Vatican square. For Christmas lunch is served “Tortellini  in Brodo” – filled pasta parcels in broth. In central Italy is also served  “Cappone” – boiled capon. A special New Year Banquet is arranged on December  31st with raisin bread, turkey, chicken, rabbit, and spaghetti being the main  items on the menu. Champagne is the drink of the evening.

During Christmas, small presents are drawn from a container known as the “Urn  of Fate”. In this lucky dip, there is always one gift per person. But the main  exchange of gifts takes place on January 6, the feast of the Epiphany, the  celebration in remembrance of the Magi’s visit to the baby Jesus. In Italy the  children wait until Epiphany for their presents and hang up their stockings on  January 6. They anxiously await a visit from “La Befana”. According to the “La  Befana” legend, while on their way to Bethlehem to visit the baby Jesus, the  three wise men stopped during their journey and asked an old woman for  directions. They also told her of Jesus’ birth and asked her to join them. She  refused them and they continued on their way.  Later a shepherd asked her to  join him in paying respect to the Baby Jesus and Befana refused again. Within a  few hours the woman had a change of heart and wished she had gone to visit the  Christ child. She arrived at the stable where Jesus was but could not find him as Joseph and Mary had long departed to escape execution by the King Herod who  wanted to kill Christ. In Italian folklore, she is called Befana and depicted  variously as a fairy queen, a crone, or an ugly witch on a broomstick. Befana is  said to be flying around ever since, looking for the Christ Child each year and  leaving presents at every house with children in case he is there. She slides  down chimneys, and fills stockings and shoes with good  gifts for good children and pieces of charcoal for the bad ones. In this,  “Befana” may be said to be the Italian equivalent of Father Christmas or Santa  Claus

Read more at http://www.theholidayspot.com/christmas/worldxmas/italy.htm#jfIwcCKmjUk4ACBm.99

2012 in review – Thank you to all my readers

Thank you to all of my Readers.

The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2012 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

600 people reached the top of Mt. Everest in 2012. This blog got about 2,300 views in 2012. If every person who reached the top of Mt. Everest viewed this blog, it would have taken 4 years to get that many views.

Click here to see the complete report.

“Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill.” Stephen Krashen

How many children will be glad to know that, how many of us have sat through really boring lessons?  I like Stephen Krashen’s theory because from my experiences it make sense.  Learning in context, using prior learning as a bridge to the next piece of knowledge is how we all learn, yet these building blocks are sometimes forgotten as are the age and linguistic development of the learner at times.

I agree with all of these saying attributed Krashen below and still find it amazing that I have had arguments with head teachers who cannot see the benefit of a safe environment where it is ok to make mistakes. This particular head was definite that no one was allowed to make mistakes….well… we all know no one is perfect, so lets embrace this fact and make it safe to try, with the skills and backup to make sure the mistake is made once and learnt from. I ask all language teachers whatever your situation,  Is your area safe to learn in?? I expect the knee jerk will be yes, but as reflective practitioners lets look at what our evidence tells us, if the children are cautious about trying, then you know deep inside that the ethos or atmosphere is wrong somewhere.

“Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language – natural communication – in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding.” Stephen Krashen

“The best methods are therefore those that supply ‘comprehensible input’ in low anxiety situations, containing messages that students really want to hear. These methods do not force early production in the second language, but allow students to produce when they are ‘ready’, recognizing that improvement comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input, and not from forcing and correcting production.” Stephen Krashen

“In the real world, conversations with sympathetic native speakers who are willing to help the acquirer understand are very helpful.” Stephen Krashen 

Wishing you all Happy Language Learning